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About Cucumber

Cucumber is a tool that enables support for Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD) by the execution of scenarios written in plain text and validates that the software does what those scenarios say. The format used to describe the scenarios is the gherkin syntax.

Cucumber was originally written in the Ruby programming language, but now supports a variety of different programming languages through various implementations, including Java.

About Cucumber JVM

Is the pure Java implementation of Cucumber that can integrates with all the popular Dependency Injection containers.


For this examples we are adding two dependencies in the pom.xml dependencies section. cucumber-jakarta-openejb for integration with Open EJB and cucumber-junit and cucumber-java to use JUnit to execute cucumber scenario(s).


Test entry point

The class org.superbiz.cucumber.CucumberTest is the entry point we can identify when the test phase from maven gets executed. The @RunWith(Cucumber.class) is the annotation that enable the cucumber integration and from there it scans the available feature files (hello.feature) and their corresponding programmatic mapping (

package org.superbiz.cucumber;

import cucumber.api.junit.Cucumber;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;

public class CucumberTest {
    // the suite, will load automatically the features

Feature file

The hello.feature file contains the gherkin syntax that indicates the sequence of steps that cucumber will execute. Check the cucumber gherkin reference documentation to understand the available keywords, rules and conditionals.

Feature: Hello

  Scenario: Say Hello
    Given A name 'foo'
    Then The bean says 'hello foo'

Step Definitions

This are the programmatic set of instruction that will match the Feature file scenarios and their corresponding actions. The class has the annotations Given and Then from the package. For this examples we are using English but the tool can support different languages.

A step definition’s expression can either be a Regular Expression or a Cucumber Expression. In this example we are using Regular Expression but you can check the Step Definition reference documentation for more information.

package org.superbiz.cucumber;


import jakarta.inject.Inject;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;

public class HelloStepDef {

    private Hello hello;

    private String name;

    @Given("^A name '([a-z]*)'$")
    public void initName(final String name) { = name;

    @Then("^The bean says '([ a-z]*)'$ ")
    public void checkResult(final String result) {
        assertEquals(result, hello.hello(name));

In the above code you can see how JUnit came into play on the line assertEquals(result, hello.hello(name)); when the result obtained from the execution of the method hello from the Hello bean is compared with the value result from the feature file hello.feature


In order to run this example, make sure you have cloned the repository to your local computer and navigate to tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm folder

Then you just need to execute:

mvn clean test


 T E S T S
Running org.superbiz.cucumber.CucumberTest
INFO - ********************************************************************************
INFO - Startup: Tue Feb 26 14:01:02 CST 2019
INFO - Copyright 1999-2018 (C) Apache OpenEJB Project, All Rights Reserved.
INFO - Version: 8.0.0-SNAPSHOT
INFO - Build date: 20190226
INFO - Build time: 11:17
INFO - ********************************************************************************
INFO - openejb.home = /Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm
INFO - openejb.base = /Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm
INFO - Created new singletonService org.apache.openejb.cdi.ThreadSingletonServiceImpl@769f71a9
INFO - Succeeded in installing singleton service
INFO - Using 'jakarta.ejb.embeddable.EJBContainer=true'
INFO - Cannot find the configuration file [conf/openejb.xml].  Will attempt to create one for the beans deployed.
INFO - Configuring Service(id=Default Security Service, type=SecurityService, provider-id=Default Security Service)
INFO - Configuring Service(id=Default Transaction Manager, type=TransactionManager, provider-id=Default Transaction Manager)
INFO - Creating TransactionManager(id=Default Transaction Manager)
INFO - Creating SecurityService(id=Default Security Service)
INFO - Found EjbModule in classpath: /Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm/target/classes
INFO - Beginning load: /Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm/target/classes
INFO - Configuring enterprise application: /Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm
INFO - Configuring Service(id=Default Managed Container, type=Container, provider-id=Default Managed Container)
INFO - Auto-creating a container for bean cucumber-jvm.Comp351520508: Container(type=MANAGED, id=Default Managed Container)
INFO - Creating Container(id=Default Managed Container)
INFO - Using directory /var/folders/xg/3840xb4543j_n48v_y19_kv00000gn/T for stateful session passivation
INFO - Enterprise application "/Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm" loaded.
INFO - Assembling app: /Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm
INFO - Existing thread singleton service in SystemInstance(): org.apache.openejb.cdi.ThreadSingletonServiceImpl@769f71a9
INFO - Some Principal APIs could not be loaded: org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.JsonWebToken out of org.eclipse.microprofile.jwt.JsonWebToken not found
INFO - OpenWebBeans Container is starting...
INFO - Adding OpenWebBeansPlugin : [CdiPlugin]
INFO - All injection points were validated successfully.
INFO - OpenWebBeans Container has started, it took 331 ms.
INFO - Deployed Application(path=/Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm)
..INFO - Undeploying app: /Users/norm/git/tomee/examples/cucumber-jvm
INFO - Destroying OpenEJB container

1 Scenarios (1 passed)
2 Steps (2 passed)

Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 2.339 sec

Results :

Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 5.462 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2019-02-26T14:01:04-06:00
[INFO] Final Memory: 29M/619M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------