The manual installation process is significantly harder then the automatic installation which we normally recommend. In this installation process you will do the following:

  1. Install openejb.war
  2. Download openejb.war from the download page
  3. Make webapps/openejb directory
  4. Change to new webapps/openejb directory
  5. Unpack the openejb.war file in the new directory
  6. Add the OpenEJB listener the conf/server.xml file
  7. Update the non-compliant Tomcat annotations-api.jar
  8. Add the OpenEJB JavaAgent to the bin/catalina.bat or bin/catalina.bat script

Install openejb.war

Once Tomcat has been installed , the OpenEJB plugin for Tomcat can be installed. The war can be obtained from the download page

The commands in this example are executed from within the Tomcat installation directory.

Unpack OpenEJB Tomcat plugin in Tomcat webapps directory

Be careful, this is the most error prone step. A web application does not contain a root directory, so if you unpack it in the wrong directory, it is difficult to undo. Please, follow this step closely, and most importantly make sure you execute the unpack command from within the new webapps/openejb directory

Due to the structure of war files, you must create a new directory for OpenEJB, change to the new directory and execute the unpack command from within the new directory. If you get this wrong, it is difficult to undo, so follow the steps closely.

    C:\apache-tomcat-6.0.14>mkdir webapps\openejb

    C:\apache-tomcat-6.0.14>cd webapps\openejb

    C:\apache-tomcat-6.0.14\webapps\openejb>jar -xvf \openejb.war
      created: WEB-INF/
      created: WEB-INF/classes/
      created: WEB-INF/classes/org/
      created: WEB-INF/classes/org/apache/
      created: WEB-INF/classes/org/apache/openejb/

     Volume in drive C has no label.
     Volume Serial Number is 0000-0000

     Directory of C:\apache-tomcat-6.0.14\webapps\openejb

    09/21/2007  10:19 AM              .
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM              ..
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM         1,000 index.html
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM              lib
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM        11,358 LICENSE
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM              META-INF
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM        11,649 NOTICE
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM         1,018 openejb.xml
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM         1,886 README.txt
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM              tomcat
    09/21/2007  10:19 AM              WEB-INF
               5 File(s)     26,911 bytes
               6 Dir(s)   4,633,796,608 bytes free

    C:\apache-tomcat-6.0.14\webapps\openejb>cd ..\..


        apache-tomcat-6.0.14$ mkdir webapps/openejb

        apache-tomcat-6.0.14$ cd webapps/openejb/

        apache-tomcat-6.0.14/webapps/openejb$ jar -xvf path/to/openejb.war 
          created: WEB-INF/
          created: WEB-INF/classes/
          created: WEB-INF/classes/org/
          created: WEB-INF/classes/org/apache/
          created: WEB-INF/classes/org/apache/openejb/

        apache-tomcat-6.0.14/webapps/openejb$ ls
        LICENSE      META-INF/    NOTICE       README.txt   WEB-INF/     index.html
      lib/         openejb.xml  tomcat/

        apache-tomcat-6.0.14/webapps/openejb$ cd ../..


Add the OpenEJB listener to Tomcat

All Tomcat listener classes must be available in the Tomcat common class loader, so the openejb-loader jar must be copied into the Tomcat lib directory.

    C:\apache-tomcat-6.0.14>copy webapps\openejb\lib\openejb-loader-3.0.0-SNAPSHOT.jar lib\openejb-loader.jar
    1 file(s) copied.

    apache-tomcat-6.0.14$ cp webapps/openejb/lib/openejb-loader-*.jar lib/openejb-loader.jar

Add the following <Listener className="org.apache.openejb.loader.OpenEJBListener" /> to your conf/server.xml file to load the OpenEJB listener:

The snippet is shown below

<!-- Note:  A "Server" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this
Documentation at /docs/config/server.html

<Server port="8005" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
<!-- OpenEJB plugin for tomcat -->
className="org.apache.openejb.loader.OpenEJBListener" />

<!--APR library loader. Documentation at /docs/apr.html -->    
className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="on" />

Update the Tomcat annotations-api.jar file

Tomcat contains an old non-compliant version of the javax.annotation classes and these invalid classes must be updated so OpenEJB can process annotations. Simply, replace the annotations-api.jar in the Tomcat lib directory with the updated annotations-api.jar in the OpenEJB war.

C:\apache-tomcat-6.0.14>copy webapps\openejb\tomcat\annotations-api.jar
Overwrite lib\annotations-api.jar? (Yes/No/All): y
    1 file(s) copied.

apache-tomcat-6.0.14$ cp webapps/openejb/tomcat/annotations-api.jar

Add OpenEJB javaagent to Tomcat startup

OpenJPA, the Java Persistence implementation used by OpenEJB, currently must enhanced persistence classes to function properly, and this requires the installation of a javaagent into the Tomcat startup process.

First, copy the OpenEJB JavaAgent jar into the lib directory.

    C:\apache-tomcat-6.0.14>copy webapps\openejb\lib\openejb-javaagent-3.0.0-SNAPSHOT.jar lib\openejb-javaagent.jar
        1 file(s) copied.

    apache-tomcat-6.0.14$ cp webapps/openejb/lib/openejb-javaagent-*.jar lib/openejb-javaagent.jar

Simply, add the snippet marked below in bin/catalina.bat (Windows) or bin/catalina.sh (Unix) file to enable the OpenEJB javaagent:

if not exist "%CATALINA_BASE%\conf\logging.properties" goto noJuli

 # Start of Snippet to add
 rem Add OpenEJB javaagent if not exist
 "%CATALINA_BASE%\webapps\openejb\lib\openejb-javaagent.jar" goto
 noOpenEJBJavaagent set
 %JAVA_OPTS% :noOpenEJBJavaagent
 # End of Snippet to add

rem ----- Execute The Requested Command

# Set juli LogManager if it is present
if [OPENEJB: -r "$CATALINA_BASE"/conf/logging.properties ](openejb:--r-"$catalina_base"/conf/logging.properties-.html)
; then

 #Start of Snippet to add
 if [OPENEJB: -r "$CATALINA_BASE"/webapps/lib/openejb-javaagent.jar ](openejb:--r-"$catalina_base"/webapps/lib/openejb-javaagent.jar-.html)
; then
#End of Snippet to add


The example above is an excerpt from the middle of the bin/catalina.sh file. Search for the this section and add the snippet shown